The Crucifixion is the central symbol of Christianity. The earliest visual examples date to the fourth century and consist of only an empty cross. Depictions of the crucified Christ first appeared in the fifth century, though signs of his physical suffering were not included in these portrayals. Instead, he was shown as a Christus Triumphans gazing directly at the viewer. This type of representation was common in the early years of the Proto-Renaissance era, usually rendered in the Maniera Greca style. Crucifixions from this period featured an apron below the arms where the Virgin Mary and St. John were usually included, as exemplified by Berlinghiero Berlinghieri's Crucifixion (Lucca, Pinacoteca) of the early 13th century. By the second half of the 13th century, in response to Franciscan influence, the Christus Triumphans type was replaced by the Christus Patiens Suffering Christ, with Coppo di Marcovaldo's Crucifixion in the Pinacoteca at San Giminiano providing an example. In c. 1280, Cimabue painted a Crucifixion in the left transept of San Francesco in Assisi as a melodramatic, windswept image of pain and suffering. In the 1370s, Altichiero rendered his version at San Antonio in Padua that included incidental scenes behind the crucified Christ, such as Roman soldiers gambling. For Andrea del Castagno, the Crucifixion (c. 1445; Florence, Santa Maria degli Angeli) provided an opportunity to render the anatomy of the seminude figure of Christ accurately, while Pietro Perugino (1481; Washington, National Gallery) preferred to evoke meditation from viewers on Christ's suffering. Tintoretto's version in the Scuola di San Rocco, Venice (1564), is one of the most spectacular crucifixions ever rendered. The cross of one of the thieves crucified alongside Christ is in the process of being raised. The scene is noisy and full of action, bringing to life the narrative of the Gospels in a way that had not been done previously. In the 17th century in Seville, Spain, debates on whether Christ was crucified with three nails or four made their way into the devotional art produced there at the time. Both Francisco de Zurbarán (Crucified Christ, 1627; Chicago, Art Institute) and Juan Martinez Montañéz (Christ of Clemency, 1603-1606; Cathedral of Seville) opted for four nails instead of the customary three to augment the sense of Christ's suffering.

Historical dictionary of Renaissance art. . 2008.

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  • CRUCIFIXION — CRUCIFIXION, mode of execution by fastening the condemned to two crossed beams. Being the form of death to which jesus of nazareth was sentenced by the Roman governor Pontius Pilate between 27 and 36 C.E., crucifixion subsequently acquired… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • crucifixion — [ krysifiksjɔ̃ ] n. f. • v. 1500; lat. ecclés. crucifixio, ionis ♦ Crucifiement de Jésus. Par ext. Sa représentation en peinture, en sculpture... « les crucifixions des Primitifs » (Huysmans). ● crucifixion nom féminin (latin ecclésiastique… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • crucifixión — sustantivo femenino 1. Uso/registro: elevado. Acción y resultado de crucificar: El castigo de la crucifixión no se podía aplicar a ciudadanos romanos. 2. Área: religión Entre los cristianos, la crucifixión de Cristo: La crucifixión redimió al… …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • crucifixion — [kro͞o΄sə fik′shən] n. 1. a crucifying or being crucified 2. [C ] a representation of the Crucifixion as in painting or statuary the Crucifixion the crucifying of Jesus …   English World dictionary

  • crucifixion — early 15c., from L.L. crucifixionem (nom. crucifixio), noun of action from stem of crucifigere death by crucifixion (see CRUCIFY (Cf. crucify)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • crucifixión — (Del lat. crucifixĭo, ōnis). 1. f. Acción y efecto de crucificar. 2. Esc. y Pint. Composición que representa la crucifixión de Jesucristo …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • crucifixion — ► NOUN 1) the execution of a person by crucifying them. 2) (the Crucifixion) the killing of Jesus Christ in such a way …   English terms dictionary

  • Crucifixion — Cru ci*fix ion (kr? s? f?k sh?n), n. 1. The act of nailing or fastening a person to a cross, for the purpose of putting him to death; the use of the cross as a method of capital punishment. [1913 Webster] 2. The state of one who is nailed or… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Crucifixion — For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). Crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth, by Marco Palmezzano (Uffizi, Florence), painting ca. 1490 …   Wikipedia

  • Crucifixion —  Cet article traite de la crucifixion de Jésus de Nazareth. Pour le supplice en général, voir crucifiement. par le Pérugin …   Wikipédia en Français

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